Nuclear energy:

The current park of nuclear reactors comprise mainly light water reactors (LWR) and CANDU reactor type. This park supplies about 11% of the world's energy. The LWR is a spin-off from naval applications and is very simple in operation. Current LWRs burn U235 in a once-through fuel cycle utilizing only about 1% of the nuclear energy. In addition they produce cupious amounts of Pu239 which was initially thought to be a good idea as Pu239 fuels fast reactors (FR). The subsequent delay in implementing FR has lead to a stockpile of toxic high level waste (HLW) (or fuel if you want). This stockpile is currently viewed as an environmental problem as the selection of geologically stable sites for long-term storage has been politically opposed (NIMBY effect). In addition the HLW may still be reprocessed and used in accelerator driven systems (ADS) or integral fast reactors (IFR).

More to follow...

References:

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